else in the universe, living things--and the cells that
make them up--must abide by the laws of thermodynamics.
First Law: Energy cannot be created or destroyed,
only transferred and transformed. Cells absorb
energy and convert it into different forms.
Second Law: Each time energy is transferred or
transformed, the entropy of the universe increases.
With each energy conversion in a cell, a significant
proportion of that energy is lost as heat.